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Page 46 31 to locate but they can be noisy drumming and callingonmorningswhentheairiscoolandstill. They leave clues. Freshly stripped bark leaves a reddish patch on the tree. If there is a concen- tration of this in an area chances improve that a rare woodpecker is in the vicinity. Once mat- ing begins in late winter these woodpeckers will stay close to their nesting sites through summer leaving clues on the nearby trees. Bay-breasted Warblers like the same low dense spruce favored by Boreal Chickadees. The song is weak but persistent. They seem to cluster so if you find one expect several. They are also among the most faithful in returning to the same spot every year. Often there are Blackpolls near- by. Blackpolls are customarily found in stunted spruce at higher elevations but they can be found in lower places too. I often find these two species sharing the same grove. Cape May Warblers have been difficult to find in recent years. They are spruce budworm specialists and can eat a thousand in one day. During outbreaks the population swells. The budworm has been absent for a couple of de- cades but outbreaks are cyclical and another is coming. Thats bad for foresters but good for warblers. Cape Mays show little nest site fidel- ity and they are best located by their song a high thin note repeated four or more times. Look for them atop relatively mature conifers. Tennessee Warblers are also budworm special- ists and currently they are nearly as tough to find as Cape Mays. When singing they are loud and persistent making them easier to track down. Wilsons Warblers nest in thick low spruce on the edge of damp areas. Mourning Warblers nest in low dry impenetrable brambles that spring up where harvest plots are regenerating. Both spe- cies are usually heard before seen. Finally be alert for the loud call of Olive-sided Flycatchers. They are well distributed throughout the north woods where they prefer tall perches inopenareas.Yellow-belliedFlycatchersarecom- mon around the edges of boggy areas. Both are vocal well into summer. Boreal ChickadeeBlack-backed Woodpecker Nashville Warbler